Monday, January 29, 2007

Penulis vs Pengulas?

“Artists don’t talk about art. Artists talk about work. If I have anything to say to young writers, it’s stop thinking of writing as art. Think of it as work.” ~Paddy Chayefsky
“Scriptwriting [for film] is the toughest part of the whole racket . . . the least understood and the least noticed.” ~Frank Capra
"There is no such thing as a creative person; there are just sharp observers with sensitive hearts." ~Yasmin Ahmad
"Blog aku ni semakin hari semakin lari dari tujuan asalnya iaitu penulisan skrip! Sekarang dah jadi blog pengulas filem? Apa sudah jadi?" ~Ajami Hashim

Friday, January 26, 2007

Qabil Khushry Qabil Igam (Malaysia/2007) - Bollywood atau Malaywood?

oleh: Ajami Hashim Khan
Lakonlayar/Cerita/Taukeh: Azlina Pa’wan
Pengarah: Zaili Sulan (fdam)
Mula tayangan: 8 Feb 2007
Kejadian2 selepas tayangan QKQI...
Sesi Q&A wartawan vs produksi kat seat depan.
Wartawan: Adakah QKQI ialah filem Bollywood?
Taukeh: Tidak. Ia adalah sebuah filem Melayu.

Sesi Q&A sesama bloggers kat seat belakang.
Saya: What?
Kash: Why? (kpd saya)
Saya: It is a Bollywood film. I mean the structure, template or acuan ceritanya exactly mengikut penceritaan filem Bollywood! Cuma bahasa & plot-line nya ialah filem Melayu.
Budiey: Tulis! Tulis! Tulis kat blog kau!

*dialog2 di atas disesuaikan mengikut ingatan & rekaan saya sendiri serta tidak melibatkan bloggers yg disebut, cuma nak tolong promote blog derang jer! serta bukan merujuk kpd Q&A sebenar! yg betul2, korang tunggu kuar kat paper!

RUJUKAN

Comedy

Dari buku
Writing the Comedy Film: Make 'em Laugh oleh Stuart Voytilla & Scott Petri (ms.1,95-102):

Comedy offer a unique perspective of our world. We call this the comic perspective. There are two distict ways to look at comic perspective:
1. The comic perspective of the writer, director, or feature comic
2. The approach to the subject or story

Comic perspective is the unique comic point of view of a comic artist. The way a writer, director, or performer spins a story to look at it from an usual viewpoint. In this sense, style and voice are
synonymous. Theme and variation are two ways to identify and define a specific comic point of view. A piece could be satirical, ironic, bitter, optimistic, positive, negative, or naive depending on who is telling the tale.
The stories of romantic comedy can divided into two categories:
1.The search for one's true love (sweet romance) - the hero and/or heroine are wounded without love, discover potential love and try to win it
2.The recommitment to love (marriage comedy) - a relationship (marriage, engagement, or other promise of commitment) is fractured, and the lovers part seeking new love only to come back and recommit to the original relationship
A comedy film is a film laced with humor or that may seek to provoke laughter from the audience. A comedy of manners film satirizes the manners and affectations of a social class, often represented by stock characters. The plot of the comedy is often concerned with an illicit love affair or some other scandal, but is generally less important than its witty dialogue. The romantic comedy sub-genre typically involves the development of a relationship between a man and a woman. The stereotyped plot line follows the "boy-gets-girl", "boy-loses-girl", "boy gets girl back again" sequence. Naturally there are innumerable variants to this plot, and much of the generally light-hearted comedy lies in the social interactions and sexual tensions between the pair.
Melodrama
Dari buku Story: Substance, Structure, Style and The Principles of Screenwriting oleh Robert McKee (ms.370):
Melodrama is not the result of over-expression, but of under motivation; not writing to big, but writing with too little desire. The power of an event can only be as great as the sum total of its causes. We feel a scene is melodramatic if we cannot believe that motivation matches action.
The word "melodrama" comes from "melos", the Greek word for song (compare melody), combined with "drama". Music is used to increase the emotional response or to suggest characters. There is a tidy structure or formula to melodrama: a villain poses a threat, the hero escapes the threat (or rescues the heroine) and there is a happy ending. In melodrama there is constructed a world of heightened emotion, stock characters and a hero who rights the disturbance to the balance of good and evil in a moral universe. In recent decades the term has taken on pejorative connotations. A melodrama in a more neutral and technical sense of the term is a play, film, or other work in which plot and action are emphasized in comparison to the more character-driven emphasis within a drama. Melodramas can be distinguished from tragedy by the fact that they are open to having a happy ending.
Bollywood
Bollywood (Hindi: बॉलीवुड, Urdu: بالیوڈ) is the informal name given to the popular Mumbai-based Hindi language film industry in India. The term is sometimes used incorrectly to refer to the whole of Indian cinema. The name is a blend of Bombay, the English name for Mumbai, and Hollywood, the centre of the American film industry. Though some purists deplore the name, arguing that it makes the industry look like a poor cousin to Hollywood, it seems likely to persist and now has its own entry in the Oxford English Dictionary. Such names have also been used for other industries, including Kollywood, Tollywood, Lollywood and Nollywood. (ada sesiapa nak tambah kat wikipedia - Malaywood). Bollywood and the other major cinematic hubs (Tamil, Marathi, Bengali, Telugu, Malayalam, and Kannada) constitute the broader Indian film industry, whose output is the largest in the world in terms of number of films produced and in number of tickets sold. Bollywood is a strong part of popular culture of not only India, but also of the rest of South Asia the Middle East, parts of Africa, parts of Southeast Asia (Malaysia) , and among the South Asian diaspora worldwide. Bollywood has its largest diasporic audiences in the UK, Canada, Australia and the U.S, all of which have large Indian immigrant populations. Bollywood is also commonly referred to as "Hindi cinema", even though Hindustani, the substratum common to both Hindi and Urdu, might be more accurate. The use of poetic Urdu words is fairly common. The connection between Hindi, Urdu, and Hindustani is an extremely contentious matter and is discussed at length in the linked articles relating specifically to the languages. There has been a growing presence of English in dialogue and songs as well. It is not uncommon to see movies which feature dialogue with English words and phrases, even whole sentences. A few movies are also made in two or even three languages (either using subtitles, or several soundtracks).
ULASAN *MUNGKIN ADA SPOILER!
Struktur cerita - QKQI adalah sebuah filem yg bergerak ke depan (linear) menggarap 2 genre filem secara berturutan dimana ia bermula sbg sebuah filem komidi-romantik dan beralih kpd sebuah melodrama sehingga ke akhirnya. Peralihan genre dilakukan pd babak Igam ditangkap polis! iaitu apabila abg2 polis dtg ke rumah keluarga Ismail pd hari pernikahan Khushry-Rani/Igam-Karisma. Anda ingat tak? Bermula dr situ filem ini bertukar arah tanpa disedari dari gelak-ketawa kpd airmata! Saya tabik pd Azlina krn berjaya menggarap filem ini sebegitu subtle tanpa khalayak sedari.
Kembali kpd Q&A rekaan saya di atas. Pd pendapat saya, QKQI ialah sebuah filem Melayu yg beracuankan struktur penceritaan filem Bollywood. Kenapa? Kerana boleh dikatakan semua bentuknya mengikut kronologi sebuah filem Bollywood yg menghambat perasaan khalayak perlahan-lahan dari bermulanya fade-in babak pertama sehingga ke fade-out babak penamat.
Sekiranya anda seorg peminat-mati-keras (die hard fan) filem2 Bollywood, pastinya anda faham maksud saya selepas anda keluar panggung nanti. Menonton QKQI seolah-olah menonton adaptasi sebuah filem Bollywood yg bercakap dlm bahasa Melayu & dilakonkan oleh pelakon2 Melayu. Izinkan saya membuat andaian kenapa? *kalau salah, tolong komen-kan!
Unsur2 filem Bollywood dlm QKQI:
1.semua pelakon2 utama; Hans, Rusdi, Erra, Ziana ialah org2 cantik
2.semua pelakon2 pembantu watak ibubapa; Dato' Rahim, Hisham, Fauziah, Maimon ialah veteran2 tersohor
3.konflik kekeluargaan; percintaan, perpisahan, salah-faham yg sgt berat boleh sampai berbunuhan dan memporak-perandakan sebuah keluarga yg harmoni di awal cerita dimana ia akan meleret-leret-leret-leret dibasahi dgn airmata berjurai-jurai-jurai-jurai dilatari dgn music-score ada suara perempuan "aaaaaaahhhh.."
4.lagu & tarian yg menggunakan costume lebih dr 1 persalinan & lokasi
5.time-frame yg digunakan bermula dari kelahiran sehingga kematian
6.ada rahsia besar yg menjadi punca konflik dimana ia akan diinterpretasikan secara salah oleh sesama watak menyebabkan porak-peranda tahap tsunami! walaupun rahsia itu sepatutnya diceritakan awal2 lagi utk mengelakkan kekeliruan atau ke-kronikan yg lebih dahsyat!
7.seseorg atau dua org; Igam & Karisma menjadi mangsa keadaan yg sgt genting
8.kasih-sayang adik-beradik tahap wow! Khushry & Igam atau Karisma & Rani
9.org jahat yg sgt jahat; Izi
10.polis/inspektor sahab akan muncul di akhir cerita shj sbg dummy!
11.sah2 tajuk filem & nama2 watak berbunyi sgt Hindi-an!
Unsur2 filem Bollywood YG TIADA dlm QKQI:
1.keretapi/lrt/monorel/komuter/KLIA Express/ERL
2.adik-beradik terpisah dr kecil krn tsunami, hanyut, kena culik etc; then dipelihara oleh seorg penjahat & seorg polis, then bila dewasa mereka bergaduh sesama sendiri, then insaf & bersatu, then lawan balik penjahat itu, then salah seorg mati di akhir cerita!
3.lebih dr 3 lagu & tarian penuh!
4.adegan membakar mayat tersayang di tepi pantai seblm membalas dendam
*sesiapa nak tambah, silakan buh kat komen..
Ok! Cemanapun QKQI masih asli & segar dr segi keMelayuannya. Adat2 ketimurannya. Kekeluargaannya. Tipikal kejahatannya; suami pukul isteri.
Komen2 membina/pedas dr saya:
1.backstory Igam sbg penagih dadah TIDAK KUAT! mcm ada missing link/scene yg perlu ditunjukkan utk establish bahawa Igam ada desire atau kenapa dia jadi begitu?
2.panjang wig yg dipakai oleh Erra & Ziana semasa dewasa inconsistent semcm conti-nya lari?
3.babak kejar-mengejar Khushry & Igam satu kg itu terlalu draggy?
4.most of dialogue kedua-dua ibu; Tijah & Cik Som exaggerate asyik menjerit?
5.babak mandi-manda/berkelah Karisma, Rani & kawan2 memakai seluar sukan & t-shirt TETAPI baju2 yg dicuri oleh Khushry & Igam adalah 2 pasang baju kurung?
6.make-up Igam semasa ketagihan exaggerate! dah mcm anggota kump black-metal dgn celak/lebam keterlaluan! btw dia tak kurus pun?
7.rumah dlm banjir unrealistic nampak sgt dlm sungai?
8.penggunaan set-up/pay-off yg longgar seolah2 dipaksa wujud utk memanjangkan plot/conflict tanpa backstory yg kukuh; misalnya kenapa Igam menjadi penagih? kenapa Cik Som menerima pinangan Asrul w/pon dia tahu kejahatannya? Ya! Cik Som nak jaga airmuka but then mana logikanya?
9.inconsistent character - Igam semasa kecil rabun & memakai cerminmata tetapi bila dewasa dia tak rabun dah? ker Igam buat lasic-surgery? ntah?..
Komen2 positif/manis dr saya:
1.pakaian pengantin semuanya cantik!
2.tarian & miming Bollywood Hans? qah! qah! qah! kira jadik laa..
3.special-effect tebuan superb!
4.aksi pergaduhan dgn parang Igam vs Asrul vs Karisma excellent!
5.statement semasa Q&A - kita campak jer apa yg org nak tengok! harap2 filem ini akan laku & lebih ramai produser dpt buat filem utk membantu artis cari makan - saya setuju!
6.the airmata scenes semuanya menjadik! especially during Karisma vs Igam (behind the wall) & Khushry vs Igam (atas jambatan)
Adakah fungsi filem ini kesampaian? Jawapan saya - Ya!
Adakah filem ini akan laris di pasaran? Jawapan saya - Sudah pasti!
Adakah filem ini akan menggondol sebarang anugerah di festival? Jawapan saya - Mungkin!
*sila klik photo kat atas tu & print jadikan pocket-calendar 2007!
*sila bawa extra tissue-paper kat panggung!
*saya masih blur about the adat melangkah perut isteri nak bersalin di babak pembukaan QKQI?
*TQ kpd nuradila@tv3.com.my krn sudi menjemput saya ke prebiu QKQI. pizza 'izzi' tu sedaps!

Tuesday, January 23, 2007

Syaitan (Malaysia/2007) - apa yg suspens? apa yg thriller?

"The oldest and strongest emotion of mankind is fear, and the oldest and strongest kind of fear is fear of the unknown." ~Howard Phillips Lovecraft

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“Pulangan pembikinan sesebuah filem bukan sekadar dilihat kepada wang ringgit semata-mata. Saya berbangga kerana kebanyakan skrip filem saya bersama Tayangan Unggul menjadi kajian pelajar di menara gading. Sutradara Bade Azmi mengakui filem berat bertemakan suspens-thriller, Syaitan arahan terbarunya agak mengelirukan. Bagaimanapun, katanya, terpulang kepada penonton membuat tafsiran menerusi perspektif tersendiri." ~Bade Azmi @ Harian Metro
Maka izinkan saya utk mengkaji Syaitan dr kacamata saya yg kabur & keliru. Juga kerana Bade memulangkan kpd khalayak utk menginterpretasikan filem ini melalui perspektif masing2.
1. a state or condition of mental uncertainty or excitement, as in awaiting a decision or outcome, usually accompanied by a degree of apprehension or anxiety.
2. a state of mental indecision.
3. undecided or doubtful condition.
4. the state or condition of being suspended.
5. saspens/suspens - keadaan teruja, tegang, cemas, bimbang, dsb ketika menunggu sesuatu berita atau menghampiri sesuatu klimaks (Kamus Dewan 4th ed ms.1396)
1. a person or thing that thrills.
2. an exciting, suspenseful play or story, esp. a mystery story.
3. yg mengerikan (Collins Gem Bm-Eng Dictionary ms.581; 'thriller' TIADA dlm Kamus Dewan 4th ed!)
Saya cadangkan anda membaca cerapan dr wikipedia ini utk memahami Syaitan krn mungkin filem ini berlatarkan penceritaan literary genre yg diperkenalkan oleh Tzvetan Todorov berdasarkan bukunya The Fantastic.
The Fantastic is a literary term that describes a quality of other literary genres, and in some cases is used as a genre in and of itself, although in this case it is often conflated with the Supernatural. The term was originated in the structuralist theory of critic Tzvetan Todorov in his work "The Fantastic". He describes the fantastic as being a liminal state of the supernatural. A truly fantastic work is subtle in the working of the feeling, and would leave the reader with a sense of confusion about the work, and whether or not the phenomenon was real or imagined. Todorov compares this with two other ideas: The Supernatural Explained, wherein the phenomenon turns out to have a rational explanation such as in the gothic works of Ann Radcliffe; or the Uncanny, where there truly is a supernatural explanation for the phenomenon.
There is no truly typical "fantastic story", as the term generally discusses works of the horror or gothic genre. But two representative stories might be:
1. Algernon Blackwood's story "The Willows", where two men travelling down the Danube River are beset by an eery feeling of malice and several improbable setbacks in their trip; the question that pervades the story is whether they are falling prey to the wilderness and their own imaginations, or if there really is something horrific out to get them.
2. Edgar Allan Poe's story "The Black Cat", where a murderer is haunted by a black cat; but is it revenge from beyond the grave, or just simply a cat?
There isn't a clear distinction between the Fantastic and
Magical Realism, but the latter seems generally to include a higher proportion of non-real elements.
The Fantastic is sometimes erroneously called the Grotesque or Supernatural fiction, because both the Grotesque and the Supernatural contain fantastic elements, yet they are not the same, as the fantastic is based on an ambiguity of those elements.
Filem2 rujukan utk memahami struktur cerita Syaitan mungkin:
A bright-eyed young actress travels to Hollywood, only to be ensnared in a dark conspiracy involving a woman who was nearly murdered, and now has amnesia because of a car crash. Eventually, both women are pulled into a psychotic illusion involving a dangerous blue box, a director named Adam Kesher, and the mysterious night club Silencio.
Seorang Pak Guru/Ruzlan yg didekati oleh Iblis (secara langsung) utk menyesatkannya dari kepercayaan kpd Allah & ajaran Al-Quran. Dimana filem ini dibikin secara dream-sequence.
The film tells the story of the deranged Doctor Caligari and his faithful sleepwalking Cesare and their connection to a string of murders in a German mountain village, Holstenwall. Caligari presents one of the earliest examples of a motion picture "frame story" in which the body of the plot is presented as a flashback, as told by Francis.
updated: 24/01/07

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Adakah buku
The Coma oleh Alex Garland ini ialah rujukan plot Syaitan?
The Coma begins with the narrator, Carl, coming home from work on the London Underground where he's brutally beaten by a gang of thugs. Carl wakes in a hospital and suffers through a series of experiences that don't quite seem right, until he realizes he's really in a coma. He struggles to find a waking trigger, a memory that will bring him out of the coma, but he can't even remember his last name. As Carl experiences each new event, he, as well as the reader, is not sure which is reality and which is a dream.
In 'The Coma' a man wakes -- or appears to wake -- from a coma to discover that the world around him has changed. Nothing as dramatic as a night of the living dead, nothing he can even put his finger on, just lots of small, unnerving mutations. He suffers a strange hallucination in which wounds, received at the hands of muggers, start bleeding copiously through his bandages. He perceives his best friend as being oddly cold and unsympathetic. And he realizes that he can't recall what he does for a living or where he grew up. A dream? Amnesia? Or the disjointed inner thoughts of a man who is still in a coma?
ref: nytimes
Carl apparently wakes up, is discharged from the hospital and returns home, only to find blood soaking through his bandages: ''I began to think for the first time that my psychological fallout might be more severe than I had anticipated.'' While at a friend's house, he thinks that he might be suffering from brain damage, and then wonders how he could possibly have gotten to his friend's house -- having no wallet, it being the middle of the night, and so on. Thus follows a fugue of existential anxiety, wherein Carl tries to determine whether he is experiencing a hallucination or reality. It takes a conversation with his girlfriend, Catherine, for him eventually to figure out what's been going on. Waking, being questioned by the police, returning home, going to his friend's house and, indeed, talking to Catherine -- none of these things (he realizes) have happened. ''In reality, I'm lying in a hospital bed, with flowers on the side table, and falling pollen, and this is the dream I'm having while I sleep.'' Now what he has to do is wake up.
ref: nytimes
The tale, which despite the brief violence is at first light and airy, grows steadily darker as Carl begins to realize there is something amiss with the world to which he's woken up. His sense of passing time is oddly compressed, old friends act strangely toward him, a simple mug of hot coffee is suddenly and indescribably just, well, off.
Carl is living, in the vernacular of the drug world, totally in his head. His reality may be fractured, but he clings to the idea that he is still himself — he is his consciousness, not his body.
Shortly after being discharged from hospital, Carl experiences an intimation that "something strange will happen". Instead, he finds himself considering a cup of coffee: "I had hoped that the strange thing would be more spectacular ... as an illustration of an unusual event, the making and offering of a cup of coffee seemed to err on the side of subtlety."
Carl has lost part of his memory, and also his sense of reality. He goes to see his friend, whose lack of sympathy seems at first outrageous, then positively sinister. The friend is like a robot, and the awful truth dawns on Carl. He has not recovered. He is still in hospital, still in a coma, and everything around him is a dream.
Carl, the narrator, gets beaten up on the Tube and finds himself in hospital. He checks himself out, but soon finds that reality is determined to mess with his head. Low-level weirdness increases until he figures out that he 's dreaming: Carl is in a coma, and now he must try to wake up.
Ulasan saya:
Syaitan ialah sebuah cerita mengenai.. ops! saya sendiri tak tahu bagaimana hendak menghabiskan ayat itu? Anda perlu saksikan sendiri di pawagam mulai 25 Jan 2007! Apa yg dapat saya katakan bahawa filem ini bergerak ke depan dgn timbunan suspen yg mengunung perlahan-lahan dari hasil kerja kamera yg draggy & muzik versi ambient (dark ambient) yg mencurigakan setiap kali 'kesyaitanan' menghampiri Muslim atau Dalila.
Mungkin filem sebegini bukan disasarkan kpd penonton yg tidak sabar. Kelebihan membuat filem berlatarkan koma/mimpi sebegini ialah ketaklogikan yg boleh dilogikkan dlm apa jua bentuk! Campaklah apa saja babak yg mustahil dimana di akhir cerita ia akan masuk akal! Cuma ia akan memberi risiko kpd khalayak yg tidak bersedia utk filem semacam ini kerana mereka yg pada mulanya akan teruja utk mengikuti what is going to happen next? mungkin akan kepenatan apabila next yg mereka tunggu tidak tiba dgn segera! Ertikata lain, khalayak perlu bersabar banyak banyak banyak!
Ini ialah filem non-linear dimana plotnya bergerak ke depan & ke belakang sesuka hati! Khalayak perlu menonton sehingga habis utk menyempurnakan jln ceritanya, mengaitkan watak2nya dan mengelakkan dari cemuhan keluar dari mulut sekiranya khalayak menonton sekerat jln!
Walau apapun tafsiran anda tentang Syaitan, saya tetap tabik pd Bade krn berjaya membikin sebuah filem yg berkualiti dr segi visual & kesan bunyi juga BUKAN TIPIKAL filem Melayu terdahulu! Kredit saya juga kpd lakonan BUKAN KEBIASAAN utk teraju2nya Rosyam Nor, Lis Dawati, Zulhuzaimi, Que Haidar, Nur Khiriah, Liyana Jasmay, Azri Iskandar, Ellie Suriati & Khushayry.
Adakah fungsi filem ini kesampaian? Jawapan saya ialah ya!
Adakah filem sebegini akan laris di pasaran? Jawapan saya ialah mungkin!

Thursday, January 18, 2007

Berbagi Suami (Indonesia/2006) - struktur cerita bagus banget!

Wahai my readers! Pergilah tonton di panggung sementara masih ada tayangan! Rating LPF: 18PL

updated: 21/01/07
Story Structure
3 cerita (ensemble film) yg bergerak bersama2 serentak ke depan (1 time-frame tru linear-storytelling) ditayangkan secara giliran dlm anyaman yg sangat bagus! Ia sebuah filem yg mambawa isu yg sgt berat tetapi berjaya dipersembahkan dlm penceritaan yg menyerap ke dlm jiwa lagi mengujakan minda! It's contagious! Ia akan menghantui anda!

Salma - poligami yg near perfect!
Siti - poligami yg near disaster!
Ming - poligami yg terperangkap!

Time-frame ketiga-tiga cerita aku anggarkan berlaku dlm 10 tahun serentak:

1. Salma mendahului sbg pembuka cerita iaitu 10 tahun yg lalu (bukan flashback iaitu linear storytelling) dimana dia mengetahui dimadukan, bergerak ke depan sehingga berlakunya tragedi tsunami Acheh.

2. Siti datang ke Jakarta mungkin 5-6 tahun yg lalu, bergerak ke depan juga berakhir dgn tragedi tsunami Acheh.

3. Ming mula bekerja di restoren mungkin di antara cerita Salma & Siti, mungkin 6-7 tahun yg lalu bergerak ke depan sehingga tragedi tsunami Acheh.

Ketiga-tiga cerita menggunakan 3-act-structure bagi setiap cerita masing2 (aku akan ulas yg ni after tonton lagi sekali)

Bagi aku, kalau dilihat sebagai sebuah filem tanpa memisahkan ketiga-tiga cerita, aku dpt simpulkan bahawa:

Salma (act-1) >> Siti (act-2) >> Ming (act-3)

Salma (set-up) >> Siti (confrontation) >> Ming (resolution)

Salma (beginning/kepala) >> Siti (middle/badan) >> Ming (end/ekor)

Apakah acuan filem ini? (Plot/Structure) Aku kena tanya Nia Dinata sendiri BUT mungkin filem2 berikut adalah rujukan yg terdekat:

If These Walls Could Talk (1996) - A trilogy of stories set in the same house, but with different occupants and spanning over 40 years, deals with various women and moral crisis over unexpected pregnancies and their choice of abortion. In 1952, when abortion was illegal, a nurse deals with her unexpected pregnancy and takes drastic measures to get one. In 1974 a family housewife with four children discovers that she's pregnant and decides she can't handle another child to raise. In 1996, a pregnant college student decides on an abortion, but doesn't realize the means to go through to get one.

The Hours (2002) - The film concerns three women each suffering from depression. In 1923 England, ailing novelist Virginia Woolf (Nicole Kidman) is starting to write her novel, 'Mrs. Dalloway', under the care of doctors and family. In 1951 Los Angeles, Laura Brown (Julianne Moore) is a pregnant housewife whom is planning for her husband's birthday, but is preoccupied with reading Woolf's novel. In 2001 New York, Clarrisa Vaughn (Meryl Streep) is a lesbian publisher planning an award party for her friend, an author dying of AIDS. Taking place over one day, all three stories are interconnected with the novel mentioned before, as one is writing it, one is reading it, and one is living it.

Go (1999) - 'Go' is set mostly during one long Christmas Eve in the lives of a group of young adults on the events surrounding a drug deal in Los Angeles replayed three different times from three different views.

Crimes and Misdemeanors (1989) - In two seperate stories of adultery; a New York doctor (Martin Landau) resorts to desperate measures to cover up his long-term adulterous affair. An unhappily married documentary filmmaker (Woody Allen) fights an adulterous temptation while making his latest documentary on a TV producer.

Voice-over Narration
Naratif secara V/O adalah salah satu cara utk menerangkan exposition. Spt juga flashback, hasil karangan dlm sesebuah skrip filem menggunakan V/O hanya ada 2 kemungkinan samada ditulis dgn baik atau sebaliknya akan mencaca-marbakan lagi penceritaan iaitu ia akan menjadi redundant; misalnya:

FADE IN:

INT.BILIK PEJABAT - DAY
Kelihatan Shah sedang terkocoh-kocoh menaip dan mengklik butang2 kekunci di komputer ribanya. Terpapar jelas di skrin komputer itu bentuk2 grafik berwarna-warni menggunakan software Photoshop & Illustrator.

SHAH (V/O)
Aku perlu menyiapkan lukisan grafik ini segera!

FADE OUT.

Itulah yg dipanggil redundant scene! V/O tidak perlu! Naratif dlm btk Show, Don't Tell sudah memadai. Tetapi dlm filem Berbagi Suami, V/O ketiga-tiga watak; Salma, Siti dan Ming perlu digunakan sbg counterpoint iaitu menerangkan apa yg tersirat di sebalik yg tersurat dlm setiap babak2 yg mereka lalui. Pd pendapat aku, penggunaan V/O dlm filem ini sangat berkesan & menjadikan khalayak lebih memahami apa yg berlaku dlm babak2 yg di paparkan.
Character & Characterization
Dlm Berbagi Suami, ada 3 protagonist utk setiap cerita secara bergiliran. Wow factor! filem ini ialah kepandaian penulis skrip/pengarah menggarap ketertonjolan setiap protagonist mengikut sekuen cerita siapa yg khalayak tonton per segmen? Maksud aku,
Cerita 1: Salma is protagonist, Siti & Ming - extra/cameo
Cerita 2: Siti is protagonist, Salma & Ming - extra/cameo
Cerita 3: Ming is protagonist, Salma & Siti - extra/cameo
Ia dilakukan dgn memisahkan ketiga-tiga cerita mengikut point-of-view siapa protagonist yg hendak bercerita dlm V/O. Anda akan lihat ketiga-tiga watak sebenarnya bertemu (intersect) dlm ketiga-tiga cerita dlm babak2 yg brilliant melalui pertembungan lokasi; klinik, restoren & perumahan murah. Pertembungan juga melalui interaksi secara terus; doktor-pesakit, pelayan-pelanggan restoren, pemberian teddybear pd ank kecil.
Next soalan, siapakah/apakah antagonist dlm ketiga-tiga cerita? Pd pndpt aku, dlm filem ini tiada antagonist dlm btk watak tetapi poligami itu sendiri adalah antagonism kpd ketiga-tiga watak. Ya! anda akan bertanya bagaimana dgn watak2 sekeliling protagonist? Mereka adalah watak2 lawan yg menopengkan poligami! iaitu penghuraian, persoalan & permasalahan poligami. Watak2 ini menjadi cermin kpd protagonist iaitu satu cara utk menerangkan exposition selain V/O. Huraian aku, Nadim ialah penyalur rasa ketidakpuashatian Salma melalui dialog2 rebel dan sarcastic dr mulut Nadim kpd ayahnya. Dwi ialah nafsu tersembunyi dlm diri Siti. Manakala Ming menggunakan perhatian Firman utk mengejar impiannya menjadi seorg bintang filem.
Filem ini berteraskan character's driven dimana tunggak setiap cerita dipikul oleh Salma, Siti & Ming secara bergiliran. Setiap cerita mengheret emosi khalayak melalui empathy kpd setiap protagonist. Maksudnya, kita sbg penonton akan merasai apa yg protagonist rasakan di dlm sanubari mereka di sepanjang poligami itu walaupun secara zahirnya kita menidakkan perwatakan spt Salma, Siti atau Ming di dlm diri kita sendiri. Ujikaji? Imaginasikan situasi sbg isteri tua spt Salma yg selama ini merasakan bahawa dirinya sudah sempurna sebagai seorg isteri tetapi dimadukan juga akhirnya? Bayangkan sekiranya anda berada di dlm keadaan Siti yg tinggal serumah dgn 2 org lagi madunya? Renungkan seandainya kita menjadi Ming yg menjadi seolah-olah perempuan simpanan sedangkan dia seorg isteri ke-2 yg sah? Sejauh manakah anda mampu bertahan dan bersabar? Suatu dilema berpoligami yg sukar dilalui hari demi hari yg ternyata amat sukar di dlm dunia realiti khalayak; kita tidak mampu utk sekuat atau setabah mereka. Melalui empathy inilah khalayak terasa begitu dekat dgn ketiga-tiga protagonist lalu menyokong setiap geri-laku tindakan yg mereka laksanakan dlm cerita masing2. Hasilnya, keseronokan utk mengetahui sejauh manakah mereka sanggup pergi utk mendepani isu poligami akan mencetuskan suatu pengalaman menonton yg memuaskan hati khalayak apabila setiap cerita ditamatkan.
ref:
http://redfilms.com.my/berbagisuami.htm
Story by Robert McKee
NOTA
yasmin said...
i think this is a wonderful film. but it's the candour with which the subject was dealt with, and the charm of the characters that make it wonderful, not the structure. for a film about polygamy yang mana "structure" dia outstanding, watch the iranian film called "leila".
Sun Jan 21, 04:15:00 AM 2007
ajami said...
Katakanlah skrip Berbagi Suami dikarang dgn struktur cerita spt berikut:

A. 3 cerita yg digarap dlm 1 cerita shj spt Cinta dimana ketiga-tiga cerita diselang-seli dlm 1 time-frame yg parallel;

cerita Salma vs Pak Haji vs Nadim >> cut to >> cerita Ming vs Koh Abun vs Linda vs Firman >> cut to >> cerita Siti datang ke Jakarta vs Pak Lik vs Sri vs Dwi >> cut back to >> cerita Salma >> cut back to >> cerita Ming >> cut back to >> cerita Siti… (dan looping seterusnya)

atau:

B. 3 cerita yg digarap spt struktur asal dimana ketiga-tiga cerita bergiliran TETAPI kita tunggang-terbalikkan sekuennya mengikut 6 kebarangkalian berikut;

cerita Siti dahulu >> cerita Ming >> cerita Salma
atau
cerita Siti dahulu >> cerita Salma >> cerita Ming
atau
cerita Ming dahulu >> cerita Salma >> cerita Siti
atau
cerita Ming dahulu >> cerita Siti >> cerita Salma
atau
cerita Salma dahulu >> cerita Ming >> cerita Siti
yg digunakan oleh Nia Dinata (asal) ialah:
cerita Salma dahulu >> cerita Siti >> cerita Ming

atau:

C. ambil mana-mana 2 cerita shj sbg sebuah filem.
D. ambil mana-mana 1 cerita shj sbg sebuah filem.
E. tukarkan time-frame iaitu spt filem If These Walls Could Talk dimana ketiga-tiga cerita berlainan zaman/tahun; mungkin 80an, 90an & 2000an atau mana2 zamanlah.

..atau struktur cerita yg lain mengikut cadangan ‘what if’ yg dpt korang fikirkan. Bukankah story structure yg dipilih oleh Nia Dinata itu yg terbaik & menyebabkan filem ini meletops BUKAN kerana "the candour with which the subject was dealt with, and the charm of the characters" sahaja?

Ok, adakah komen yasmin bahawa cerita & perwatakan Berbagi Suami yg menyebabkan filem ini bagus 100% betul? Atau pendapat saya bahawa struktur cerita Berbagi Suami yg menyebabkan filem ini bagus 100% betul?

Sebenarnya, pendapat yasmin atau saya ada betulnya dan tidaknya..

Sunday, January 14, 2007

Kuntilanak (Indonesia/2006) - mari belajar struktur cerita seram?

oleh Ajami Hashim

Kuntilanak (2006) filem seram Indonesia arahan ke-2 Rizal Mantovani selepas Jelangkung (2001). Cerita asal oleh Rizal sendiri dan lakonlayar oleh Ve Handojo. Kuntilanak diedarkan oleh Tayangan Unggul dan mula ditayangkan di pawagam pada 18 Jan 2007 (hari Khamis, mlm Jumaat!). Fanatik filem2 genre seram hantu semestinya sudah arif dgn struktur cerita/naratif pengulangan kisah latar filem sebegini - cliche & predictable! Sekali-sekala muncul filem seram terbaru yg terasa segar dari segi persembahannya dan inilah yg berjaya dilakukan oleh Kuntilanak. Ia berhasil kerana hook ber-acuan-kan what is going to happen next? atau the range of things than can happen next? yg dijalin dgn anyaman sejarah kuntilanak (atau mitos?) yg meyakinkan dan penyuntingan filem terkini ala Korea, Jepun dan Thailand.

Amnya, sesebuah filem seram hanyalah berbeza dari kulit luarannya tetapi masih sama isi struktur cerita/naratifnya - beza tapi sama! Apakah yg aku maksudkan? Dlm buku The Philosophy of Horror (pg. 97-104) oleh Noell Carrol, beliau men-sekuen-kan 4 fungsi sesebuah karya seram iaitu:

1. onset (mukadimah) - Memperkenalkan subjek seram (kuntilanak) iaitu asal-usul (backstory), pemastian (establish) dan maklumat (exposition). Ada 2 cara pilihan onset iaitu:

a. thriller - khalayak tahu pasal kewujudan & kecelakaan yg bakal dilakukan oleh kuntilanak sebelum watak2 tahu; kita tahu dahulu bahawa kuntilanak & kesannya akan benar2 wujud dlm filem (sah2 tajuknya Kuntilanak!) manakala Sam belum tahu apa yg bakal ditemui di rumah itu.

b. mystery - khalayak & watak2 bergerak serentak; kita tahu atau tidak tahu pasal makhluk pd waktu yg sama dgn watak2; kita & Sam diberikan taklimat oleh Bu Yanti ala2 tourist-guide yg panjang-lebar mengenai peraturan2 rumah & kisah empunya rumah iaitu keluarga besar nigrat Jawa - Mangkujiwo, kisah kuntilanak yg kononnya sekadar mitos, sebuah lagu Jawa menyeru kuntilanak, perihal pokok besar dan etc! (exposition tahap buku sejarah!)

Dari onset, timbul soalan2 iaitu apakah kaitan trauma mimpi2 Sam? apakah sebenarnya kuasa yg merasuk diri Sam? apakah kaitan Sam vs kuntilanak vs rumah vs keluarga vs mimpi? Kuntilanak berjaya meng-hook dgn suspen kerana khalayak sudah mendapat gambaran kasar apa yg bakal ditemui seterusnya dan sesungguhnya kita tahu kesemua mitos itu BENAR!

2. discovery (penemuan) - Kesemua set-up yg diwar2kan dlm onset akan dijawab dgn penemuan2 yg Sam lalui satu-persatu bersama khalayak. Inilah intipati seram filem ini iaitu sekuel Sam tanpa sedar menyeru kuntilanak & visual2 modus-operandi kuntilanak yg menjadi hamba suruhannya (yg juga mencarutkan mulut aku bbp kali tanpa sengaja dgn prktaan b**i!) Dlm btk apa? Korang tengok sendirilah! Penemuan juga diberikan dlm btk sub-plot oleh rakan sekelas Agung yg obses dgn alam mistik siap dgn rujukan buku, lukisan & cerita lisan yg tiada Sam ketahui dimana info ini hanya utk khalayak shj menjadikan kita 1 langkah di depan Sam sbg teknik penceritaan seram extra flavour!

3. confirmation (pengesahan) - Penemuan2 di atas akan diikuti oleh pengesahan juga klimak jawapan penuh 100% kpd soalan2 dr onset & discovery. Watak Sri Sukmarahimi Mangkoedjiwo ialah ensiklopedia kuntilanak seumpama pensyarah tak bertauliah kpd Sam & khalayak utk menghuraikan semua persoalan pokok filem ini! ya! SEMUA persoalan2 di atas.

4. confrontation (perhitungan akhir) - Ini ialah konklusi kpd persoalan2 di atas? Menang atau kalah? Hidup atau mati? The showdown! The full circle! The payback time! Sam dan khalayak sudah graduate bersama2 dgn cemerlang dimana segala ilmu & misteri kuntilanak sudah dlm kepala hotak Sam & kita! Inilah kesudahan yg dinanti2kan oleh khalayak! Pada pendapat aku, babak2 akhir ini kesemuanya pay-off utk setiap set-up di awal2 cerita. Ia menjawab: Apakah fungsi sebenar batu, gunting & pinggan? Cara bagaimana nak nyanyi lagu Jawa dgn pitching & feel yg betul? Adakah Love Conquers All? (bukan yg satu itu ok!)
Nota:

Yg aku gemar:
~babak Sam kerasukan vs Agung di siang2 buta! ya! waktu SIANG!
~suntingan audio & visual mantap!
~kerja kamera sgt bagus & rajin - e.g. babak simple 'remaja dlm bilik sedang menilik tangan' - punyalah byk2 angle/cuts!
~ini bukan hantu Indonesia yg tipikal mcm Suzzanna: Sundel Bolong 80's series!

Yg aku kurang gemar:
~sub-plot rakan Agung yg sgt pakar dlm alam mistik - tak dipakai di hujung cerita!
~rumah & sekitarnya itu terlalu seram - mustahil! maha mustahil ada org nak sewa!
~kenapa ayah tiri yg jahat itu bukan 1st-list kuntilanak?

Konklusi: Kalau korang peminat filem2 seram, pergi tengok! Lagipun tahun 2007 filem2 seram Melayu dah beratur pjg, maka Kuntilanak sbg pembuka tirai. Aku tak hairan filem ini akan ada sekuel Kuntilanak #2 kerana 'satu dpd empat' masih ada dlm rumah itu! Sam bukan lagi Sam yg naif! Tungguuu!

*konflik cinta Sam vs Agung aku tak ulas coz rebiu ini merujuk struktur cerita seram shj!
*tips dr blogger yg menonton kuntilanak bersama2 aku: tutup telinga bila babak2 seram utk menyaring keseraman filem yg ditonton!

ref:
Suspiria (1977) + The Craft (1996) as recommended by fadz
The Philosophy of Horror by Noel Carroll

ulasan Kuntilanak 2 & 3:

Kuntilanak 2 - mari belajar struktur sekuel cerita seram?


Kuntilanak 3 ~ akhirnya..


terima kasih:
Ira Fazir Che Ishak - Tayangan Unggul Sdn. Bhd. - jemputlah lagi saya & fadz utk tayangan perdana filem2 TUSB yg akan datang ok! tapi kami tak janji rebiu akan dipengaruhi oleh jemputan percuma! ops!